Training that can be taken back to office and used immediately
IPSCAL – Integrated Petrophysics – How To Use Special Core Analysis with Modern Logs
Contents – 3 Day
This course may be tailored and expanded to 4 or 5 days In House
Logging on to this course
DAY 1 CONVENTIONAL (Routine) CORE ANALYSIS & ESSENTIAL CORE-LOG INTEGRATION
Role of Core and Logs in Geo-models
Conventional Core Analysis (CCA) Objectives
Special Core Analysis (SCAL) Objectives
When to core?
Essential Drilling & Mud Preparations for Conventional and Sidewall Coring
Core Recovery and Handling Wellsite Protocol(s)
Wellsite SCAL Protocols
Conventional Core Analysis (CCA)
Requirements for Clastics, Carbonates, Shaly Sands, Laminates, Fractures / Basement
CCA Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
CCA Plug fixed depth spacing – impact of biased CCA
CCA Recommended procedure
CCA Plug cleaning & drying: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
CCA Gas expansion porosity: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
CCA Grain density and Density Porosity
CCA Permeability: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
CCA Quality Control of received data
Essential CCA Core–Log Integration
Need for Log=CCA=SCAL for SCAL equation implementation
Four core-log calibrations ensure correct HPV’s
Essential integration: Core-log plot determines apparent fluid density, rhof
Essential integration: Deriving Øn : 1. Matrix & Shale corrections
Essential integration: Inverting Equations
Essential integration: Fluid density prediction for log=core porosity all fluid zones
Essentials: Check Ø
Impact of Porosity Error
DAY 1 PRACTICAL: Essential integration
Porosity: rhogcr, porcr & rhob and pord
Essential integration: k. Use of Timur Coates permeability equation
Essential integration: With or Without CCA – Does it matter?
Essential integration: k Bound Fluid Volume (BFV) CCA and Logs
Essential integration: BFV role in HPV and Permeability
Permeability: bfvacr, por ktc (portsh, ktca)
Rearrange SLB chart_k4 to calculate Swik4 from CCA
Essential integration: Cut rotary side-walls after locating HPV Rock Types
Petrophysical Reservoir Type
What is your Petrophysical Reservoir Type?
What is your Reservoir Type? Contd..
What is your Reservoir Type? Contd..
Does your core and CCA satisfy your Reservoir Type?
Do your logs satisfy your Reservoir Type?
Reservoir Types: Data Acquisition Fails if..
END DAY 1
DAY 2 SPECIAL CORE ANALYSIS & SPECIAL LOGS – THE STATIC GEOMODEL
SCAL Program Design Objectives
SCAL Common Problems & Solutions
Rock Typing – Reservoir Rock Type (RRT)
Different Reservoir Rock Types Require Different SCAL and Special Logs
How to pick SCAL plugs
How NOT to pick SCAL plugs: Are Pc Plugs Representative? Have Anomalous plugs been identified?
Core mineralogy / lithology: XRD, XRF, Clays: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
Modern Special Logs – lithology
Modern Core-log integration – lithology
Unconventionals Core Analysis: TOC, Free vs Adsorbed Gas, Brittleness Index
Log Integration: LithoScanner, Sonic Scanner, NMR
Static Geo-model: HC Initially In Place (HCIIP)
SCAL for HCIIP
SCAL Reservoir Pore Volume Compressibility: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
Overburden Porosity: Uniaxial Compaction Correction
Overburden Porosity: Often wrong! Check yours
Special Logs – Porosity
Interactive Petrophysics Demo
Differences: Clastics, Carbonates, Shaly Sands, Laminates, Fractures/Basement
What SCAL with What Special Log? – briefly
SCAL Lab Archie m overburden: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
LOGS Sw100 zone Pickett plots show a*Rw & m
SCAL Core-log common format ‘m’ definition plot. Ø^-m = Ro/Rw
SCAL m and Water Saturated Resistivity
SCAL Does m matter for HCIIP / Reserves?
SCAL Lab Archie n overburden: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
SCAL What is n? Sw^-n = Rt/Ro
SCAL Core-log common format ‘n’ definition plot
SCAL Does n matter for HCIIP / Reserves?
SCAL How to improve your laboratory ‘n’ values..
SCAL Multiple Salinity for Excess Conductivity, B*Qv & Waxman Smits Fws
NMR predicts SCAL Qv_core
What Is Capillary Pressure (Pc)?
Four Controls on Saturation: Pc, PTR, IFT, Wettability
SCAL Porous Plate air / oil-brine Pc: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
SCAL Centrifuge air / oil-brine Pc: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
SCAL Mecury Injection: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
SCAL When To Use Which
Impact of Inter Facial Tension (IFT)
SCAL IFT: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
Impact of Wettability (Cosineθ)
SCAL θ: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
Determination of Reservoir Scale IFT.Cosθ by Inversion
Impact of IFT.Cosθ Uncertainty on Geomodels
Why Saturation-Height? Sw-Ht, Swpc
Fluid Zones Initial Conditions: Residual, FWL, OWC, GWC, Transition Zone, @Swi
Swpc: Converting Laboratory Pc to Height
FWL: Log Formation Pressure Testers
FWL: Other methods
Swpc: Height positions the Pc-Sw data in the reservoir..
Swpc: Summary of J Function Sw from Pc data, Swj
Swpc: J Bundles Ø, k and Ht to correlate with Sw
Swpc: The Reservoir Master Equation J predicts Sw (carbonate, poor fit)
Swpc: Equation check: Plot Swj vs Sw measured
Swpc: Use CCA to project SCAL Pc data into the reservoir
Swpc: Sw-ht is IMPORTANT!
Swpc: Poor Reservoir Qualities retain more water and have thick Transition Zones
Swpc: Use of Generic Rock-Typed CCA/SCAL for Sw-ht
DAY 2 PRACTICAL: Saturation-Height
LRLCP: Swobm: Oil and Water mud core Sw compared to reservoir true Sw
LRLCP: Partial Invasion of an Oil Mud Core leaving an un-invaded center
LRLCP: Dean Stark determines oil mud Swcore: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
LRLCP: Dean Stark Swcrob = Swrt = Swx (Geomodel)
LRLC Pay: This is reality! Core (Malay basin shaly sands) reveals the inadequacy of resistivity models
Log Integration – Sw
SCAL-CCA Swpc vs Logged Rt/Ro à Saturation Exponent n
Special Logs for Sw: NMR
NMR T2 Cutoff: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
Laminated / Dispersed: Dielectric & core Sw, Sor, Qv, m, n
SCAL Swpc vs NMR Sw-ht
SCAL Swpc vs Dielectric Swi
SCAL Swpc vs other logs Sw
Log Integration for Continuous Swpc Cored or Uncored
Log Integration Method Differences per Reservoir Type
Laminated Clastic and 3D Resistivity Tools (See IPLAM training course)
Thomas Steiber & 3D Resisitvity
Low Resistivity Low Contrast Pay
DAY 3 SPECIAL CORE ANALYSIS & SPECIAL LOGS – THE DYNAMIC GEOMODEL
Reservoir Simulation / Fluid Flow
SCAL for Reservoir Simulation
Common SCAL vs Reservoir Drive
Permeability: Absolute, Relative and Effective
Fluid Zones Produced Reservoirs: Water Encroachment Zone, Sor, Sgr, Secondary Gas
Determination of Sw > Swi
The reservoir’s relationship between Relative Perm. & Capillary Pressure As Height above FWL increases..
SCAL Static vs Dynamic plug selection
SCAL Relative Permeability – Unsteady State: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
SCAL Relative Permeability – Steady State: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation
Impact of Difference Unsteady vs Steady State
Mismatch between Lab and Reservoir Conditions
Restored State Core Analysis
Impact of Mismatches
Determination of Reservoir Scale IFT*Cosθ by Inversion
CCA kh / kv and Lab vs Reservoir Scale
Does poor History Match = Bad SCAL?
Reservoir Heterogeneity – Action
DAY 3 PRACTICAL: Relative Permeability
Log Integration (CCA-Logs-SCA) for Continuous kw, ko, kg, Cored or Uncored
Petrophysics to Geomodel
Upscaling and Heterogeneity
Average vs Summed values
The Critical Geomodel Checks!
Key Points: SCAL-CCA-Log Integration
WRAP: Do This Don’t Do That!