IPSCAL Integrated Petrophysics – How To Use Special Core Analysis with Modern Logs – Details

Training that can be taken back to office and used immediately

IPSCAL Integrated Petrophysics – How To Use Special Core Analysis with Modern Logs


Contents – 3 Day

This course may be tailored and expanded to 4 or 5 days In House


Day 1

Logging on to this course

Course Objectives

Contents 1

Contents 2

Course Structure




Reservoir Schematic

Role of Core and Logs in Geo-models

Petrophysical Objectives

Coring Objectives

Conventional Core Analysis (CCA) Objectives

Special Core Analysis (SCAL) Objectives

When to core?

Essential Drilling & Mud Preparations for Conventional and Sidewall Coring

Core Recovery and Handling Wellsite Protocol(s)

Wellsite SCAL Protocols



Conventional Core Analysis (CCA)


Requirements for Clastics, Carbonates, Shaly Sands, Laminates, Fractures / Basement

CCA Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

CCA Plug fixed depth spacing – impact of biased CCA

CCA Recommended procedure

CCA Plug cleaning & drying: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

CCA Gas expansion porosity: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

CCA Grain density and Density Porosity

CCA Permeability: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

CCA Quality Control of received data


Essential CCA Core–Log Integration

Need for Log=CCA=SCAL for SCAL equation implementation

Four core-log calibrations ensure correct HPV’s

Essential integration: Core-log plot determines apparent fluid density, rhof

Essential integration: Deriving Øn : 1. Matrix & Shale corrections

Essential integration: Inverting Equations

Essential integration: Fluid density prediction for log=core porosity all fluid zones

Essentials: Check Ø


Impact of Porosity Error


DAY 1 PRACTICAL: Essential integration


Porosity: rhogcr, porcr & rhob and pord

Essential integration: k. Use of Timur Coates permeability equation

Essential integration: With or Without CCA – Does it matter?

Essential integration: k Bound Fluid Volume (BFV) CCA and Logs

Essential integration: BFV role in HPV and Permeability

Permeability: bfvacr, por  ktc (portsh, ktca)

Rearrange SLB chart_k4 to calculate Swik4 from CCA

Essential integration: Cut rotary side-walls after locating HPV Rock Types


Petrophysical Reservoir Type


What is your Petrophysical Reservoir Type?

What is your Reservoir Type? Contd..

What is your Reservoir Type? Contd..

Does your core and CCA satisfy your Reservoir Type?

Do your logs satisfy your Reservoir Type?

Reservoir Types: Data Acquisition Fails if..


Day 2

Day1 Recap


Course Structure




SCAL Program Design Objectives

SCAL Common Problems & Solutions

Rock Typing – Reservoir Rock Type (RRT)

Different Reservoir Rock Types Require Different SCAL and Special Logs

How to pick SCAL plugs

How NOT to pick SCAL plugs: Are Pc Plugs Representative?  Have Anomalous plugs been identified?



Core mineralogy / lithology: XRD, XRF, Clays: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

Modern Special Logs – lithology

Modern Core-log integration – lithology

Unconventionals Core Analysis: TOC, Free vs Adsorbed Gas, Brittleness Index

Log Integration: LithoScanner, Sonic Scanner, NMR


Static Geo-model: HC Initially In Place (HCIIP)




SCAL Reservoir Pore Volume Compressibility: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

Overburden Porosity: Uniaxial Compaction Correction

Overburden Porosity: Often wrong! Check yours

Special Logs – Porosity

Core-Log Integration

Interactive Petrophysics Demo

Differences: Clastics, Carbonates, Shaly Sands, Laminates, Fractures/Basement

What SCAL with What Special Log? – briefly


SCAL Lab Archie m overburden: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

LOGS Sw100 zone Pickett plots show a*Rw & m

SCAL Core-log common format ‘m’ definition plot. Ø^-m = Ro/Rw

SCAL m and Water Saturated Resistivity

SCAL Does m matter for HCIIP / Reserves?



SCAL Lab Archie n overburden: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

SCAL What is n?   Sw^-n = Rt/Ro

SCAL Core-log common format ‘n’ definition plot

SCAL Does n matter for HCIIP / Reserves?

SCAL How to improve your laboratory ‘n’ values..

SCAL Multiple Salinity for Excess Conductivity, B*Qv & Waxman Smits Fws

NMR predicts SCAL Qv_core


Capillary Pressure


What Is Capillary Pressure (Pc)?

Four Controls on Saturation: Pc, PTR, IFT, Wettability

SCAL Porous Plate air / oil-brine Pc: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

SCAL Centrifuge air / oil-brine Pc: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

SCAL Mecury Injection: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

SCAL When To Use Which


Impact of Inter Facial Tension (IFT)

SCAL IFT: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

Impact of Wettability (Cosineθ)

SCAL θ: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

Determination of Reservoir Scale  IFT.Cosθ  by Inversion

Impact of IFT.Cosθ Uncertainty on Geomodels



Why Saturation-Height?  Sw-Ht, Swpc

Fluid Zones Initial Conditions: Residual, FWL, OWC, GWC, Transition Zone, @Swi

Swpc: Converting Laboratory Pc  to Height

FWL: Log Formation Pressure Testers

FWL: Other methods

Swpc: Height positions the Pc-Sw data in the reservoir..

Swpc: Summary of J Function Sw from Pc data, Swj

Swpc: J Bundles Ø, k and Ht to correlate with Sw

Swpc: The Reservoir Master Equation J predicts Sw (carbonate, poor fit)

Swpc: Equation check:  Plot Swj vs Sw measured

Swpc: Use CCA to project SCAL Pc data into the reservoir

Swpc: Sw-ht is IMPORTANT!

Swpc: Poor Reservoir Qualities retain more water and have thick Transition Zones

Swpc: Use of Generic Rock-Typed CCA/SCAL for Sw-ht


DAY 2 PRACTICAL: Saturation-Height

Day 3

Day2 Recap

Course Structure

LRLCP: Swobm: Oil and Water mud core Sw compared to reservoir true Sw

LRLCP: Partial Invasion of an Oil Mud Core leaving an un-invaded center

LRLCP: Dean Stark determines oil mud Swcore: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

LRLCP: Dean Stark Swcrob = Swrt = Swx (Geomodel)

LRLC Pay: This is reality! Core (Malay basin shaly sands) reveals the inadequacy of resistivity models


Log Integration – Sw

SCAL-CCA Swpc vs Logged Rt/Ro à Saturation Exponent n

Special Logs for Sw: NMR


NMR T2 Cutoff: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

Laminated / Dispersed:  Dielectric & core Sw, Sor, Qv, m, n


SCAL Swpc vs NMR Sw-ht

SCAL Swpc vs Dielectric Swi

SCAL Swpc vs other logs Sw

Log Integration for Continuous Swpc Cored or Uncored

Log Integration Method Differences per Reservoir Type

Simple Clastic

Laminated Clastic and 3D Resistivity Tools  (See IPLAM training course)

Thomas Steiber & 3D Resisitvity

Low Resistivity Low Contrast Pay

Tight Clastics


Tight Carbonates






Reservoir Simulation / Fluid Flow


SCAL for Reservoir Simulation

Common SCAL vs Reservoir Drive

Permeability: Absolute, Relative and Effective

Fluid Zones Produced Reservoirs: Water Encroachment Zone, Sor, Sgr, Secondary Gas

Determination of Sw > Swi

The reservoir’s relationship between Relative Perm. & Capillary Pressure As Height above FWL increases..


SCAL Static vs Dynamic plug selection

SCAL Relative Permeability – Unsteady State: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

SCAL Relative Permeability – Steady State: Laboratory Apparatus and Explanation

Impact of Difference Unsteady vs Steady State



Mismatch between Lab and Reservoir Conditions

Pressure Temperature

PVT Properties


Restored State Core Analysis

Impact of Mismatches

Determination of Reservoir Scale IFT*Cosθ by Inversion

CCA kh / kv and Lab vs Reservoir Scale

Does poor History Match = Bad SCAL?


Reservoir Heterogeneity – Action


DAY 3 PRACTICAL: Relative Permeability


Log Integration

Log Integration (CCA-Logs-SCA) for Continuous kw, ko, kg, Cored or Uncored



Petrophysics to Geomodel


Upscaling and Heterogeneity

Average vs Summed values

The Critical Geomodel Checks!


Day3 Recap

Key Points: SCAL-CCA-Log Integration

WRAP:  Do This Don’t Do That!