Integrated Petrophysics – Capillary Pressure and Saturation Height
How to Derive and Use Saturation Height Functions
All courses available Online as Virtual Instructor Led Training – VILT
|Instructor Mark Deakin, PhD (Petrophysics)
Public courses 3 full days. Tailored In-House 3 to 5 days
IPSWHT slide example | Testimonials
This course explains how to derive and use capillary pressure saturation height functions in your daily petrophysical work and how to incorporate them seamlessly into your default evaluations. All aspects of saturation height are covered in detail including how to avoid common mistakes, correct and fit the lab results and how to apply the SCAL saturation function with logs and core. Mercury, air-brine, oil-brine, porous plate and centrifuge experiments are all compared and contrasted, with recommendations on how to achieve optimal results. Reservoir Types and Reservoir Rock Types, including complex carbonate pore systems, are covered along with the proper selection of plug samples, lab corrections and the various data fitting techniques.
All the commonly used fit equations are described from the simple FOIL Function (BVW) to the author’s modified J as well as the Winland R35 and Thomeer methods. Critical (Solver) fitting techniques and check plots are shown to ensure precise functions. A long and detailed, step-by-step workshop from the lab and reservoir raw data, through to reservoir saturation’s and HPV is an important focus of this course and provides participants with a reusable evaluation template. The quick-look micro-practicals include an example of the simple but useful FOIL Function. Following derivation of the SCAL function the practical goes on to fully integrate all routine core analysis plugs and logged resistivity’s – a unique feature of this course. This process produces a modern, real-world, fully integrated petrophysical model from the [SCAL – RCA – Log driven] equation for use by any member of the reservoir team, geo-modeller, reservoir engineer or petrophysicist. This model can be quickly re-run using log analysis or within geo-models for “what if?” scenarios by any team member for HCIP or well productivity. Integrating the Swht model through to logs in this way – so it can be run by anyone – provides a powerful and transparent quality control which tends to focus and harmonize team thinking from exploration through to field development.
Time is spent on understanding and addressing carbonate complex pore system saturation-height issues, including oil filled vugs, fractures and wettability.
A similar process is then outlined, but this time deriving the [por-Sw-k-height] relationship from resistivity and NMR logs – a method employed where the petrophysicist believes logs reveal the true reservoir saturation more properly than the available core (some N. Sea fields).
Core-Log integration has been the central topic of the author’s Imperial College Ph.D. and over 30 years of consulting, reading and lecturing on core-log integration. It is also the central purpose of the PetroDB software which expands essential core-log integration to SCAL and modern logs.
Explains the industry wide saturation-height method and shows how to derive and integrate ALL routine core analysis and logs properly, into the special core analysis capillary pressure saturation height function
Who Should Attend?
Petrophysicists, reservoir engineers, core analysts, geologists, geo-modelers and engineers who build or use static or dynamic reservoir models. Anyone with a year’s experience with core-log integration. Bring your laptop with MS Excel.
Intro and Lab
Why Saturation Height? Sw = f.(por, k, ht)
Reservoir Pc and its effect on Saturation – what we model in the lab
What are Reservoir Rock Types (RRTs) and why they are important for Swht
Clastic vs Carbonate RRTs
Rocktyping: after RCA before SCAL
What is Capillary Pressure?
Micro-practical. Quick Look Swht
Capillary Pressure Lab apparatus:
Is your lab setup a genuine analogy with your initial conditions reservoir?
Lab Problems: are plugs representative? Temperature, pressure & salinity. Altered wettability. Lab vs Reservoir Pc range
Lab Vetting Samples. Vetting lab results
Practical – corrections and impact
Which? Mercury Injection, Air-Brine, Oil-Brine
Does porosity, permeability, facies or all three drive reservoir Swht? PTSD – throats
Petrophysicist: Always plot Swht with Swlogs
Lab Swht Interpretation
Capillary Pressure Fit equations – Fit each plug or fit all?
FOIL Function BVW; J Function; Lambda (Shell); Skelt Harrison; Modified J (Deakin)
Micropractical – FOIL function example
Lab to Reservoir Conversion equation
Cap press fit equation errors < Application errors: Facies, k, FWL, Ølog = Øcore; klog = kcore
How to use all RCA in Swht not just SCAL (typical ResEng method)
Check your assumptions. Are they valid?
FWL? Permeability? Vuggy carbonates: Are plugs representative? Fractures? Are uncored RRTs, valid? Wettability?
Practical – How to Use Capillary Pressure Data
Generic Swht equations
How to use Swht to calibrate your Archie/Waxman Smits Saturation Exponent n value
Petrophysicist: Swht or Swlogs? Which, When and Why
Log based Saturation Height
Log based Swht with Resisitivity
Log Based Swht without Resistivity
When to use Core, When to use Logs
Example: Implementation in Interactive Petrophysics
Wrap up: Do This, Don’t Do That!
Note In addition to his own wide experience this Instructor regularly attends short courses and lectures on Capillary Pressure Saturation Height to ensure he is not missing anything!
Dr Mark Deakin is a consultant, author and lecturer in Petrophysical Data Integration. He holds a Ph.D. in ‘Integrated Petrophysics’ from London’s Imperial College, is an ex Amoco petrophysicist, and has more than 30 years’ experience, including 15 as a lecturer and director of PETROPHYSICS Pty Ltd. He has performed over 60 detailed reservoir studies, primarily in Southeast Asia’s difficult carbonate and stacked ‘low-contrast-pay’ reservoirs, keeping abreast of new technologies by technical reading, operations work, attending short courses and lecturing. Mark’s proven approach is to identify and rank reserves uncertainties, then guide companies toward defensible reserves via a process of targeted data acquisition, data-hierarchy and systematic integration. After his Ph.D. Mark authored the first public Integrated Petrophysics course which has evolved into the industry benchmark course for mainstream petrophysics. Deakin also developed “Integrated Petrophysics for Carbonate & Fractured Reservoirs – A Roadmap” and the powerful PetroDB-WEB core-log-test linked database evaluation for complex reservoirs. Deakin is a member of SPWLA with offices in Perth, Australia.